Electricity

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U.S. energy flow

There are various sources of energy consumed in the United States and different uses for each.

Unbundled service

Unbundled service happens when the distribution company provides the delivery service but another entity such as a marketer or aggregator provid …

Utility distribution company (UDC)

A utility distribution company (UDC) is an electric utility that provides distribution services.

Vertically integrated monopoly utility electric market model

Under the vertically integrated monopoly utility model, generation, transmission, distribution, retail sales, and system operations functions an …

Volt-ampere reactive (VAR)

A VAR is a unit of measurement of reactive power. VARs occur when AC electric currents and voltage are not in phase. Current and voltage become …

Voltage

The term voltage is used to quantify the pressure or force pushing electrons through a conductor. For electrons to move from atom to atom, there …

Voltage collapse

Voltage collapse is a particular type of blackout that occurs when voltage decline coupled with triggering of protection equipment leads to a ca …

Voltage regulator

Voltage regulators are adjustable step-up or step-down transformers that help maintain adequate voltage on long distribution lines.

Voltage support

Voltage support is provided by specially equipped units that have the capability to adjust the ratio of VARs to MWh provided to the grid.

Water turbine

Water turbines are used in hydroelectric power plants to convert the kinetic energy in flowing water to the mechanical energy of a rotating shaf …

Watt's Law

Watt’s Law is an electrical relationship that is helpful in sizing the capacity of circuits and services. You will commonly see two forms of W …

Wholesale customer

In the energy industry, wholesale customers are entities that buy natural gas or electric supply for the purpose of reselling it. Wholesale cust …

Wholesale electric pricing

Generally speaking, market-based prices are determined by market perceptions of the supply/demand balance. Wholesale electricity prices are usua …

Wholesale marketer

Wholesale marketers are entities that purchase natural gas or electric supply for the purposes or reselling the supply to other market participa …

Wholesale/industrial competition electric market model

Under the wholesale/industrial competition model, the utility remains responsible for providing supply to residential and small commercial custo …

Wind farm

A wind farm is a group of wind turbines that generate electricity in a common location. A wind farm may also be called a wind power station, a w …

Wind power

Wind power is created by the conversion of kinetic energy in wind, which is the energy of the moving air molecules, to energy in the form of ele …

Wye distribution line

A wye distribution line describes a specific configuration of a three-phase line. Wye distribution lines are typically found in areas containing …

Zero carbon

Zero carbon describes a process that has no greenhouse gas emissions.

Zero emission vehicle (ZEV)

A ZEV is a vehicle that emits close to zero pollutants. As of 2021, ZEV was defined by California as having 98% cleaner emissions than the curre …