Markets

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Vertically integrated monopoly utility electric market model

Under the vertically integrated monopoly utility model, generation, transmission, distribution, retail sales, and system operations functions an …

Wholesale customer

In the energy industry, wholesale customers are entities that buy natural gas or electric supply for the purpose of reselling it. Wholesale cust …

Wholesale electric pricing

Generally speaking, market-based prices are determined by market perceptions of the supply/demand balance. Wholesale electricity prices are usua …

Wholesale marketer

Wholesale marketers are entities that purchase natural gas or electric supply for the purposes or reselling the supply to other market participa …

Wholesale/industrial competition electric market model

Under the wholesale/industrial competition model, the utility remains responsible for providing supply to residential and small commercial custo …

Zero carbon

Zero carbon describes a process that has no greenhouse gas emissions.

Zero-emissions credit (ZEC)

A ZEC is a tradeable financial instrument that allows the owner of a zero-emissions electric generating plant to receive revenue associated with …

Zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) credit

A zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) credit is a tradeable financial instrument that provides zero-emissions vehicle manufacturers with a revenue stre …

Zero-emissions vehicle mandate program

A zero-emissions vehicle mandate program, commonly called a ZEV mandate program, is a government regulation that requires manufacturers of vehic …