Delivery Systems

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Transmission pipe

Transmission line pipe is typically 12 to 48 inches in diameter and constructed of ¼- to ¾-inch thick steel.

Transmission rights

Transmission rights are used by generators and/or marketers to ensure delivery of power to a point of sale.

Transmission substation

Transmission substations connect two or more transmission lines.


A turbine is a machine in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid causes a series of blades to spin, thus converting kinetic energy to mechan …

U.S. energy flow

There are various sources of energy consumed in the United States and different uses for each.


The natural gas delivery chain comprises three sectors. The upstream sector is often considered to consist of facilities that are used in the pr …


Valves are required along the gas delivery system so that sections of the system can be isolated and shut down in the event of a leak or other e …

Volt-ampere reactive (VAR)

A VAR is a unit of measurement of reactive power. VARs occur when AC electric currents and voltage are not in phase. Current and voltage become …

Voltage collapse

Voltage collapse is a particular type of blackout that occurs when voltage decline coupled with triggering of protection equipment leads to a ca …

Voltage regulator

Voltage regulators are adjustable step-up or step-down transformers that help maintain adequate voltage on long distribution lines.

Water turbine

Water turbines are used in hydroelectric power plants to convert the kinetic energy in flowing water to the mechanical energy of a rotating shaf …

Wind farm

A wind farm is a group of wind turbines that generate electricity in a common location. A wind farm may also be called a wind power station, a w …

Wye distribution line

A wye distribution line describes a specific configuration of a three-phase line. Wye distribution lines are typically found in areas containing …

Zero-emissions credit (ZEC)

A ZEC is a tradeable financial instrument that allows the owner of a zero-emissions electric generating plant to receive revenue associated with …